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Embedded Generators

F C Power Solutions provides support for developers of embedded generators, such as wind and solar farms and assist them with the process of grid connection.

Connection Configuration

For developers of embedded generators it is essential the proposed connection to the electrical network is feasible and meets all legal and technical requirements. F C Power Solutions has the expertise and capability to ensure the proposed configuration will meet all criteria and requirements. By carrying out a range of engineering studies it can be determined how the proposed connection can best comply with the electricity rules, the network service provider’s requirements, and any plant and equipment constraints.
Our experts monitor, model, assess, provide findings and determine workable outcomes from an engineering aspect. We also explain the economic impact of our findings, to provide a valuable basis on which the network service provider can develop future plans and strategies.

Steady-State System Studies

Using a load flow program, F C Power Solutions carries out system studies to determine whether the proposed connection configuration is feasible, given the network constraints. Such studies generally require checking for line thermal capability, network voltages and other plant limitations, as well as the impact on existing customers.
System studies are carried out using a load flow program to determine whether the proposed connection configuration is feasible, given the network constraints. These studies generally require checking for line thermal capability, network voltages, fault levels, other plant limitations and impact on existing customers.

Fault Studies

Fault level studies are important to ensure that with the additional embedded generators the network is maintained within planning and design levels, and circuit breaker rupture ratings are not exceeded. Due to the present trend of an increasing penetration of inverter-coupled devices on networks, their fault current contributions need to be accurately accounted for. These may be in the form of constant current sources, and typically are not well modelled in many conventional power analysis programs. F C Power Solutions has the expertise to correctly perform such calculations.

Dynamic Studies

In dynamic studies the electrical network is subjected to abrupt or transient changes corresponding to what would be expected in actual operation. From these simulation results the dynamic performance of the embedded generator connection and the electrical network can be assessed. Dynamic studies enable analysis of the network and proposed connection to determine network and installation responses, and can provide solutions where unfavourable responses are detected. The phenomena of transient stability and oscillatory stability are considered as appropriate. Issues with intra- and inter-area oscillations and tuning of power system stabilisers can be investigated. F C Power Solutions has experience in modelling of the full National Electricity Market power system. Also, through its collaborative work with wind turbine manufacturers and solar inverter manufacturers, it has considerable experience in the fine tuning of embedded generator control systems as often required in the case of connection to weak electrical power systems. National Electricity Rules Certification F C Power Solutions assists proponents of embedded generators with the required National Electricity Rules certification studies, which typically involve:

R2 Testing

Proposed embedded generators must meet all performance requirements as spelt out in the Generator Performance Standards document. F C Power Solutions has the expertise to undertake the required R2-testing, to demonstrate the embedded generator meets all of these performance requirements.

Power Quality Studies

F C Power Solutions provides expert advice to developers of embedded generators in the following specific areas:

We have proven industry expertise in power quality understanding and measurement. The determination of the state of voltages and currents at a given point of interest, such as a customer’s point of connection, needs to be understood and measured so that the appropriate analysis of the harmonics, flicker and unbalance, along with other quantities according to IEC standards or relevant guidelines, can be carried out and documented.

Control Systems Design

With its experience in both power systems and ion control systems, F C Power Solutions can design control systems for power plants. With embedded generators, typically there are several control systems that relate to the plant, the most common being the park controller which coordinates output of the plant at various levels of operating voltage and output power. We can use our software and measurement capability to provide direct tuning of this equipment. Power Line Parameters Power line parameters are a major input into studies of power systems. F C Power Solutions has the expertise and software to develop from first principles if required the power line parameters, using professional industry standard programs such as EMTP.


Being highly specialised in power system modelling and simulation studies, F C Power Solutions can provide its services over a wide range of software programs, including:


F C Power Solutions offers training in the discipline of network analysis and development relating to connection of embedded generators. Training can be provided utilising the power supplier’s own software packages, making it directly relevant to the supplier’s own specific conditions. All training is industry based, focused and formatted to meet particular needs, avoiding any waste of time and resources on irrelevant topics.